Business Brokers – How to Choose the Right One

The vast majority of small businesses are sold without the assistance of business brokers.

But if you do decide the hire a broker, here are some suggestions on how to pick the right one and how to structure the agreement in your favor.

What Business Is The Broker Actually In?

In many states there is no training or certification needed to become a business broker. In other states, brokers are required to hold a real estate license.

In these states it’s common to find real estate agents that do business brokering as a side business. If you deal with a broker who is also a real estate agent, make sure that being a business broker is more than just his hobby.

You will pay a pretty penny for the broker’s expertise and experience – you should make sure they have that experience when it comes to selling businesses and not just experience selling houses.

Questions To Ask

If you hire a broker you will be working with them closely for months to come; they will have access to your most confidential business records; the amount of money you put in your pocket at closing will be influenced heavily by the quality of work they do.

Therefore, you absolutely must check them out.

Here are some questions you should ask any prospective broker before hiring him:

1. How long have you been a broker?
2. Have you ever owned a business?
3. How many businesses similar to mine have you helped sell?
4. Can I see a blank version of your Listing Agreement?
5. What percentage of you income comes from brokering and how much from real estate (If applicable)

Ask them to provide you with references from previous clients. Then, I suggest you do something very unusual: Actually call the broker’s references!
I know a lot of people ask for references just to see how the person will react when asked (and to see if they actuality have any). But you can learn a lot about the broker’s reliability and professionalism by talking to people who dealt with that broker when they were in the exact same spot you are in.

Business Broker Fees

There are two benefits a broker can provide the business seller. First, he can locate potential buyers while maintaining the seller’s confidentiality. And second, a broker will qualify these potential business buyers so the seller saves time by not having to deal with weak prospects.

The big negative of dealing with a business broker is his fee, which averages 10-12% of the sale price. This fee is charged to the seller.

There is also a minimum fee. A very small business will pay a flat amount, typically $8-$10,000, instead of the commission. For a business worth $50,000 this minimum fee actually works out to be a higher percentage than the 10-12% industry average. But as a matter of practice, brokers usually won’t be interested in your business unless the asking price is above $100,000.

These fees are the reason most business owners choose to sell their business themselves and rely on their lawyers and accountants for the professional assistance they need.

The Broker Agreement

If you decide to use a broker you’ll be asked to sign a broker agreement which will detail the his fees. If possible, have your agreement include the following clauses:

Timing of Payments – Have it written into the agreement that the broker’s fee will be paid at the time you receive the purchase price – not at the time the sale is closed. This way, if you finance part of the sale price over a number of years, you pay the business broker as you get the money, not all up front.

Length Of Agreement – Your listing agreement should be for a limited time. If the broker locates the buyer within that time he gets paid. Be careful of lengthy agreements that lock you in with one business broker for more than 6 months. If he doesn’t produce, you want to be able to try other options. A 6 month business broker agreement is the longest you should allow. However, because selling a business can be a lengthy process, 3 months is usually too little time for the broker to find the right buyer. Try to settle on something between 3 and 6 months. If after six months, you haven’t closed the deal but you think the broker has done a good job, you’re always free to extend the agreement. But you want to be free to decide on an extension 6 months from now, not today.

Broker’s Guarantee – Include a paragraph stating that if you find the buyer, you don’t have to pay the commission. Without this clause, the broker is usually paid no matter who locates the buyer. Before signing any listing agreement, it is best to have your attorney review it to make sure your interests are protected.

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How Important Is a Business Broker to Buyers and Sellers?

Establishments and companies change ownership at some point. As such, the services of business brokers prove to be highly valuable for both the seller and the buyer. An aspiring entrepreneur needs to evaluate a target business establishment, and this is where a professional business broker can offer valuable assistance. The seller also will find it rewarding to seek the assistance of a business for sale broker for the advertising and the negotiation facilitation with prospect buyers.

Benefits of Hiring Business Brokers

Selling a business can be a demanding and tiresome process. This can take up a lot of time and can even affect the value of the business, as you spend more time on its sale process rather than on the daily operations of the business. This is where the services of business brokers come in handy.

First off, a professional broker can give you confidentiality, and can assure you that only the prospective buyers you approve will be contacted. A trustworthy and experienced broker can save you time in screening prospective buyers in advance. Brokers can already check if a prospect buyer has good financial resources to buy your business. They will also ask buyers to sign a confidentiality and non-disclosure contracts. If you attempt to sell your business openly or independently, you would most likely damage your staff’s morale. You would also give your competitors the opportunity to spread damaging rumors about you and steal your valued customers. When you hire a business for sale broker, he can work anonymously, ensuring the protection of your business.

Moreover, selling your business all by yourself can be inefficient, especially if you lack the experience. A business broker generally has more experience, resources, and tools to effectively reach potential buyers faster and easier. However, reaching target buyers is just one part of a broker’s job; getting the best price for your business is his other important job. A professional broker should have the capacity to advertise your company in such a way that it can attract serious and financially stable buyers. This would definitely increase your benefits and advantages in selling your business.

Finally, business brokers can name the value of your business. This process involves more than just revenue or profit, thus, you may undervalue or overvalue your company, and these mistakes bear indicative consequences. For an experienced business broker, there is a rare chance to commit such mistakes.

From a business buyer’s perspective, a business for sale broker brings a lot of advantages as well. If you are a buyer and asked the assistance of a broker, you will be able to have access to opportunities that you won’t likely find on your own. If you do not have enough knowledge regarding the industry you chose, you can get helpful advice and useful insights from a good business broker. Your broker can also facilitate other essential tasks such as researching recent market conditions, current prices, and reasonable financing.

Trusting only Certified Business Brokers

With the increasing number of sale brokers out there, you may face challenges identifying which ones are trustworthy and which ones are bogus. To resolve this dilemma, all you need to do is check their certifications and experiences. The main organization that provides business broker certification opportunities is the International Association of Business Brokers (IBBA). A certified business broker should have at least one of these designations:

- Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV)

- Certified Business Appraiser (CBA)

- Accredited Senior Appraiser in Business Valuation (ASA-BV)

- Certified Valuation Analyst (CVA)

Although a certification may be a good sign that a business broker is legitimate and trustworthy, it does not fully guarantee his competence in the field. The broker’s practical experience is also an important aspect to consider in choosing which one to trust. Do some research or ask around for the number of transactions that your prospect broker has successfully closed, as well as some positive feedback regarding his experience in the industry. An insightful business broker can benefit a lot from his or her experiences, such as building significant relationships within the industry and learning from past mistakes. Certification cannot match such benefits and advantages.

While certification is a vital requirement in establishing a broker’s credibility, you should always take into account the experience of a business for sale broker before making a decision. Choose one who has the knowledge and experience that you will not get anywhere else. Don’t you agree that the role and importance of business brokers is essential to both business sellers and buyers?

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Why Should I Use A Business Broker?

You’ve come to the decision that buying a business or selling your business is the path that you want to take. The best piece of advice, although biased, I can offer is to retain the services of a business broker or business transfer adviser. Although business brokers usually work on behalf of the seller, there are sell-side business brokers and buy-side advisers. Even if you’re a buyer and you decide not to retain the services of a business broker or transfer adviser, you’ll receive the benefits because a business broker is working with the seller.

The broker is sort of like a clamp that holds things together as the business buyer and seller progress through the business transaction. Below I’m going to explain to you how both business seller and business buyer can and will benefit from the services of a business broker:

Let’s meet-

The good thing about the business broker is, the profession requires face to face meetings. Even though the broker is getting paid by the business seller, the buyer has to meet with the broker in order to view the business as well as so the broker can determine if the buyer is a compatible buyer for the business.

The meeting will be an interview style meeting. Some of the questions that will be asked by the broker are:

1- Can you go into detail about your background?

2- Have you ever purchased a business

3- Do you have easy access to the cash to buy a business?

4- Can you show proof of proceeds on a recent bank statement?

5- How soon are you willing to make a purchase?

In addition to the question and answer portion, you’ll also be given a personal financial statement to fill out and return. Be sure you return this information as soon as possible.

What usually takes place after this meeting is, the business broker will than present compatible business to the buyer. So come prepared with a recent bank statement showing the cash. Time is of great importance. Strike while the fire is hot and move with swiftness.

Expect for the broker to ask you to sign a non-disclosure agreement. The business seller wants to ensure that the word about the business being for sale is kept quite.

As the buyer, you’ll get to see very general financial information about the business of interest and others in the business broker has other businesses available. If you decide that you have serious interest in any of the businesses that are presented, the broker will provide you with more in-depth financial date and also arrange for you to see the business in person.

The broker will act of the best point of contact for the buyer. Any questions or concerns that the buyer may have, the broker can answer all questions concerning the business.

How the business broker helps the seller-

If you’re the owner of a business and you’ve decided to sell, one of the best services that you can retain are the services of a business broker. The broker will oversee the entire process while you continue to run your business.

The business broker will interview all of the buyers. This service by itself is worth the broker fee. Business brokers usually have access to a database of buyers that they’ve acquired over the years. These are buyers that have identified themselves are compatible and financially capable of buying a business. Having access to a list of buyers will speed up the process and help get the business sold while it’s still “hot.”

The business broker will especially prepare a marketing plan for the business in question. A sales prospectus will take time to prepare but your broker will provide you with this required document. In addition, the broker will structure the deal as well as assist the completion of the paper work.

Many owners don’t know how much their business is worth, therefore the broker can assist you with pricing your business. Te pricing of the business is just a starting point. The buyer will get an official appraisal. Between the 2 numbers, the negotiations will start there. Also, you want to ensure that your business is properly priced. You don’t want it to be overpriced not under priced A business that is priced right WILL SELL. The ultimate price of the business will be determined by what it sells for or as brokers like to say-the marketplace.

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SEC Changes Course and Allows Business Brokers to Receive Commissions on Business Stock Sales

Prior to 1985, the SEC did not consider the sale of a business structured as a stock sale to be a sale of securities under the securities laws. This was known as the Sale of Business Doctrine. As a result, the penalties and rules that apply to securities sales did not apply to the sale of a business, and business brokers and merger and acquisition brokers were able to receive commissions in connections with those sales without being registered as a broker dealer. This changed in 1985 when the Supreme Court of the United States took the position that the sale of a business structured as a stock sale was indeed the sale of securities. As a result, business brokers and merger and acquisition brokers were prohibited from earning commissions in connection with those sales unless they were registered as a broker dealer. This created substantial implications for business brokers and mergers and acquisition brokers, especially where a transaction started out structured as a sale of assets and then during the course of negotiations, the transaction was restructured to be a sale of stock. In that case, business brokers and merger and acquisition brokers that were not registered as broker dealers were theoretically prohibited from earning a commission, simply because the structure of the transaction had changed. This result was often thought of as unfair in the industry.

The ABA task force on private placement broker dealers noted in its year 2000 final report that the broker dealer registration process involved significant costs as well as a regulatory model that is not the right size to accommodate the particular role played by business brokers in connection with the sale of a business. The requirement to register as a broker dealer is a lengthy process and there are substantial costs and fees, together with start up and first year expenses, including legal, accounting, and operating costs that can equal several hundred thousand dollars. Persons effecting one or several transactions a year simply cannot bear this financial burden. These firms do not hold customer funds or securities and generally they merely introduce the parties to one another and transmit documents between the parties. They do not participate in structuring or negotiating these transactions or otherwise advise the parties. Both buyers and sellers in this type of transaction are typically represented by legal counsel who can assist with due diligence, draft the transactional documents and advise their clients on structure, tax considerations and contractual provisions and there are remedies, both contractual and by operation of law, that are available to the parties in these types of transactions.

On January 31, 2014, the SEC changed its mind about these matters and issued a long awaited no action letter permitting certain merger and acquisition brokers to receive commissions in connection with the sale of a business even where the sale is structured as a stock sale.

Under the new interpretation, merger and acquisition brokers are permitted to facilitate acquisitions, mergers, business sales, and business combinations on behalf of buyers and sellers of privately-held companies and receive commissions in connection with the transaction. Moreover, the letter does not limit the amount or type of compensation that a merger and acquisition broker may receive, and it does not limit the size of the privately-held company. The letter also permits merger and acquisition brokers to advertise the sale of a privately-held company and include in such advertisements a description, general location and price range of the business.

For purposes of this letter ruling, a privately-held company is one that does not have any class of securities registered or required to be registered with the SEC under Section 12 of The Exchange Act or to which it is required to file periodic reports under Section 15(d) of The Exchange Act. Also the company must be a going concern and not a shell company.

As is so often the case in these matters, there is a catch. In this case, the catch is that the relief available under this no action letter is only available if the transaction satisfies ten (10) very specific conditions.

Those conditions are as follows:

1. The “merger and acquisition broker” must not have the ability to bind a party to a merger and acquisition transaction. A “mergers and acquisition broker” for the purpose of the letter is a person engaged in the business of effecting the securities transaction solely in connection with the transfer of ownership and control of a privately-held company through the purchase, sale, exchange, issuance, repurchase, or redemption of, or business combination involving securities or assets of the company, to a buyer that will actively operate the company or the business with the assets of the acquired company.

2. The merger and acquisition broker must not directly or indirectly through any of its affiliates provide financing for the merger and acquisition transaction. The merger and acquisition broker may assist the purchaser in obtaining financing from an unaffiliated third party but they must comply with all applicable legal requirements and disclose to their client, in writing, the receipt of any compensation in connection with the financing.

3. The mergers and acquisition broker is prohibited from having custody, control or possession of or otherwise handling funds or securities issued or exchanged in connection with the merger and acquisition transaction or other securities transactions for the account of others. The merger and acquisition transaction cannot involve a public offering. Any offering of securities must be conducted in compliance with an applicable exemption from registration.

4. No party to a merger and acquisition transaction may be a shell company, other than a business combination related company.

5. If a merger and acquisition broker represents both the buyer and the seller in a transaction it must provide clear written disclosure of the potential conflict to the parties it represents and it must obtain written consent from both parties to the joint representation.

6. A merger and acquisition broker may only facilitate a merger and acquisition transaction with a group of buyers if the group is formed without the assistance of the merger and acquisition broker.

7. Buyers or a group of buyers in a merger and acquisition transaction must control and actively operate the business acquired with the assets of that business. In this regard, control will be considered to be achieved if the buyers have the power directly or indirectly to manage the company or the policies of the company through ownership of securities by contract or otherwise. Under the view of the SEC, a buyer could be considered to actively operate an acquired company simply by possessing the power to elect executive officers and approve annual budgets or by service as an executive or other executive manager, among other things. The necessary control will be presumed if at the completion of the transaction the buyer or group of buyers has the right to vote 25% or more of the class of voting securities; has the power to sell or direct the sale of 25% or more of a class of voting securities; or in the case of a partnership or limited liability company has the right to receive, upon dissolution 25% or more of the proceeds from the dissolution, or has contributed 5% or more of the capital to the transaction. In addition, the buyer or a group of buyers must actively operate the company or the business acquired with the assets of the company.

8. No merger and acquisition transaction can result in the transfer of interests to a passive buyer or a group of passive buyers.

9. Any securities received by the buyer in the merger and acquisition transaction will be restricted securities within the meaning of Rule 144(a)(3) of The Securities Act.

10. A merger and acquisition broker must meet the following conditions:

(a) The broker has not been barred from association with a broker dealer by the SEC or any state or self-regulatory organization.

(b) The broker must not be suspended from association with a broker dealer.

These rules make very clear who will be entitled to the exemption provided in the no action letter. As a result of these changes, business brokers and merger and acquisition brokers will no longer have to worry whether or not they will be able to receive their commission in the event that a transaction is ultimately cast as a stock purchase. The SEC’s actions in this instance are grounded in an understanding of the realities of the typical sale of business transaction. The truth is that those transactions are structured on the basis of accounting or tax considerations, and not on the application of federal securities laws. The sale of a business between sellers and buyers of privately-owned companies are qualitatively different in virtually every respect from traditional retail or institutional brokerage transactions.

We are encouraged that the SEC recognized these distinctions. This decision will clarify a tricky area of the law and provide appropriate relief to business brokers and mergers and acquisition brokers who work in this area.

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Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7

Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7
My Dad repaired most of our shoes believe it or not, I can hardly believe it myself now. With 7 pairs of shoes always needing repairs I think he was quite clever to learn how to “Keep us in shoe Leather” to coin a phrase!

He bought several different sizes of cast iron cobbler’s “lasts”. Last, the old English “Laest” meaning footprint. Lasts were holding devices shaped like a human foot. I have no idea where he would have bought the shoe leather. Only that it was a beautiful creamy, shiny colour and the smell was lovely.

But I do remember our shoes turned upside down on and fitted into these lasts, my Dad cutting the leather around the shape of the shoe, and then hammering nails, into the leather shape. Sometimes we’d feel one or 2 of those nails poking through the insides of our shoes, but our dad always fixed it.

Hiking and Swimming Galas
Dad was a very outdoorsy type, unlike my mother, who was probably too busy indoors. She also enjoyed the peace and quiet when he took us off for the day!

Anyway, he often took us hiking in the mountains where we’d have a picnic of sandwiches and flasks of tea. And more often than not we went by steam train.

We loved poking our heads out of the window until our eyes hurt like mad from a blast of soot blowing back from the engine. But sore, bloodshot eyes never dampened our enthusiasm.

Dad was an avid swimmer and water polo player, and he used to take us to swimming galas, as they were called back then. He often took part in these galas. And again we always travelled by steam train.

Rowing Over To Ireland’s Eye
That’s what we did back then, we had to go by rowboat, the only way to get to Ireland’s eye, which is 15 minutes from mainland Howth. From there we could see Malahide, Lambay Island and Howth Head of course. These days you can take a Round Trip Cruise on a small cruise ship!

But we thoroughly enjoyed rowing and once there we couldn’t wait to climb the rocks, and have a swim. We picnicked and watched the friendly seals doing their thing and showing off.

Not to mention all kinds of birdlife including the Puffin.The Martello Tower was also interesting but a bit dangerous to attempt entering. I’m getting lost in the past as I write, and have to drag myself back to the present.

Fun Outings with The camera Club
Dad was also a very keen amateur photographer, and was a member of a camera Club. There were many Sunday photography outings and along with us came other kids of the members of the club.

And we always had great fun while the adults busied themselves taking photos of everything and anything, it seemed to us. Dad was so serious about his photography that he set up a dark room where he developed and printed his photographs.

All black and white at the time. He and his camera club entered many of their favourites in exhibitions throughout Europe. I’m quite proud to say that many cups and medals were won by Dad. They have been shared amongst all his grandchildren which I find quite special.

He liked taking portraits of us kids too, mostly when we were in a state of untidiness, usually during play. Dad always preferred the natural look of messy hair and clothes in the photos of his children.

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What Are The Greatest Changes In Shopping In Your Lifetime

What are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime? So asked my 9 year old grandson.

As I thought of the question the local Green Grocer came to mind. Because that is what the greatest change in shopping in my lifetime is.

That was the first place to start with the question of what are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime.

Our local green grocer was the most important change in shopping in my lifetime. Beside him was our butcher, a hairdresser and a chemist.

Looking back, we were well catered for as we had quite a few in our suburb. And yes, the greatest changes in shopping in my lifetime were with the small family owned businesses.

Entertainment While Shopping Has Changed
Buying butter was an entertainment in itself.
My sister and I often had to go to a favourite family grocer close by. We were always polite as we asked for a pound or two of butter and other small items.

Out came a big block of wet butter wrapped in grease-proof paper. Brought from the back of the shop, placed on a huge counter top and included two grooved pates.

That was a big change in our shopping in my lifetime… you don’t come across butter bashing nowadays.

Our old friendly Mr. Mahon with the moustache, would cut a square of butter. Lift it to another piece of greaseproof paper with his pates. On it went to the weighing scales, a bit sliced off or added here and there.

Our old grocer would then bash it with gusto, turning it over and over. Upside down and sideways it went, so that it had grooves from the pates, splashes going everywhere, including our faces.

My sister and I thought this was great fun and it always cracked us up. We loved it, as we loved Mahon’s, on the corner, our very favourite grocery shop.

Grocery Shopping
Further afield, we often had to go to another of my mother’s favourite, not so local, green grocer’s. Mr. McKessie, ( spelt phonetically) would take our list, gather the groceries and put them all in a big cardboard box.

And because we were good customers he always delivered them to our house free of charge. But he wasn’t nearly as much fun as old Mr. Mahon. Even so, he was a nice man.

All Things Fresh
So there were very many common services such as home deliveries like:

• Farm eggs

• Fresh vegetables

• Cow’s milk

• Freshly baked bread

• Coal for our open fires

Delivery Services
A man used to come to our house a couple of times a week with farm fresh eggs.

Another used to come every day with fresh vegetables, although my father loved growing his own.

Our milk, topped with beautiful cream, was delivered to our doorstep every single morning.

Unbelievably, come think of it now, our bread came to us in a huge van driven by our “bread-man” named Jerry who became a family friend.

My parents always invited Jerry and his wife to their parties, and there were many during the summer months. Kids and adults all thoroughly enjoyed these times. Alcohol was never included, my parents were teetotallers. Lemonade was a treat, with home made sandwiches and cakes.

The coal-man was another who delivered bags of coal for our open fires. I can still see his sooty face under his tweed cap but I can’t remember his name. We knew them all by name but most of them escape me now.

Mr. Higgins, a service man from the Hoover Company always came to our house to replace our old vacuum cleaner with an updated model.

Our insurance company even sent a man to collect the weekly premium.

People then only paid for their shopping with cash. This in itself has been a huge change in shopping in my lifetime.

In some department stores there was a system whereby the money from the cash registers was transported in a small cylinder on a moving wire track to the central office.

Some Of The Bigger Changes
Some of the bigger changes in shopping were the opening of supermarkets.

• Supermarkets replaced many individual smaller grocery shops. Cash and bank cheques have given way to credit and key cards.

• Internet shopping… the latest trend, but in many minds, doing more harm, to book shops.

• Not many written shopping lists, because mobile phones have taken over.

On a more optimistic note, I hear that book shops are popular again after a decline.

Personal Service Has Most Definitely Changed
So, no one really has to leave home, to purchase almost anything, technology makes it so easy to do online.
And we have a much bigger range of products now, to choose from, and credit cards have given us the greatest ease of payment.

We have longer shopping hours, and weekend shopping. But we have lost the personal service that we oldies had taken for granted and also appreciated.

Because of their frenetic lifestyles, I have heard people say they find shopping very stressful, that is grocery shopping. I’m sure it is when you have to dash home and cook dinner after a days work. I often think there has to be a better, less stressful way.

My mother had the best of both worlds, in the services she had at her disposal. With a full time job looking after 9 people, 7 children plus her and my dad, she was very lucky. Lucky too that she did not have 2 jobs.

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What We Have Here Is A Failure To Communicate

The results of this past election proved once again that the Democrats had a golden opportunity to capitalize on the failings of the Trump Presidency but, fell short of a nation wide mandate. A mandate to seize the gauntlet of the progressive movement that Senator Sanders through down a little over four years ago. The opportunities were there from the very beginning even before this pandemic struck. In their failing to educate the public of the consequences of continued Congressional gridlock, conservatism, and what National Economic Reform’s Ten Articles of Confederation would do led to the results that are playing out today.. More Congressional gridlock, more conservatism and more suffering of millions of Americans are the direct consequences of the Democrats failure to communicate and educate the public. Educate the public that a progressive agenda is necessary to pull the United States out of this Pandemic, and restore this nations health and vitality.

It was the DNC’s intent in this election to only focus on the Trump Administration. They failed to grasp the urgency of the times. They also failed to communicate with the public about the dire conditions millions have been and still are facing even before the Pandemic. The billions of dollars funneled into campaign coffers should have been used to educate the voting public that creating a unified coalition would bring sweeping reforms that are so desperately needed. The reality of what transpired in a year and a half of political campaigning those billions of dollars only created more animosity and division polarizing one extreme over another.

One can remember back in 1992 Ross Perot used his own funds to go on national TV to educate the public on the dire ramifications of not addressing our national debt. That same approach should have been used during this election cycle. By using the medium of television to communicate and educate the public is the most effective way in communicating and educating the public. Had the Biden campaign and the DNC used their resources in this way the results we ae seeing today would have not created the potential for more gridlock in our government. The opportunity was there to educate the public of safety protocols during the siege of this pandemic and how National Economic Reform’s Ten Articles of Confederation provides the necessary progressive reforms that will propel the United States out of the abyss of debt and restore our economy. Restoring our economy so that every American will have the means and the availability of financial and economic security.

The failure of the Democratic party since 2016 has been recruiting a Presidential Candidate who many felt was questionable and more conservative signals that the results of today has not met with the desired results the Democratic party wanted. Then again? By not fully communicating and not educating the public on the merits of a unified progressive platform has left the United States transfixed in our greatest divides since the Civil War. This writers support of Senator Bernie Sanders is well documented. Since 2015 he has laid the groundwork for progressive reforms. He also has the foundations on which these reforms can deliver the goods as they say. But, what did the DNC do, they purposely went out of their way to engineer a candidate who was more in tune with the status-quo of the DNC. They failed to communicate to the public in educating all of us on the ways our lives would be better served with a progressive agenda that was the benchmark of Senators Sanders Presidential campaign and his Our Revolution movement. And this is way there is still really no progress in creating a less toxic environment in Washington and around the country.

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